Insertion Sort is another simple sorting algorithm that builds up the final sorted array one element at a time. Here is an example implementation of insertion sort in JavaScript:

function insertionSort(arr) {
  for (let i = 1; i < arr.length; i++) {
    let currentVal = arr[i];
    let j;
    for (j = i - 1; j >= 0 && arr[j] > currentVal; j--) {
      arr[j + 1] = arr[j];
    arr[j + 1] = currentVal;
  return arr;

In this example, the outer loop iterates through the array starting at index 1, the inner loop iterates through the sorted portion of the array and finds the correct position for the current element in the outer loop, and then inserts it there.

The inner loop iterates backwards and compares each element with the current value, while shifting elements greater than the current value to the right.

The process is repeated until the entire array is sorted.

Insertion sort is efficient for small data sets or data sets that are already partially sorted or “almost” sorted.

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